A German, Dutch and Danish surname, Hess, the origin term referred to the people who constructed clothing with hoods. It also referred to the warriors who wore helmets or a hood. Variations in spelling of Hess include Hessing, Hessung, Hesse and Hesser. The Hess surname is common in Hesse Cassel, Germany. In England the Hess name is found in the city of London, Hampshire, Lancashire and Yorkshire counties. In Scotland the counties of Fife, Lancashire and Ayrshire have the greater numbers of Hess families. Within the United States the Hess name is mostly centered in the northeast region. The states with the higher percentage of Hess families is Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and Rhode Island. Famous: Elmar Hess (artist from Germany), Orvan W. Hess (medical doctor and developer of the fetal heart monitor), Caspar Hess (a Hessian soldier from Germany who remained in the new US after the American Revolution), Jared Hess (writer and film director), Rudolf Hess (direct assist to Hitler and the Nazi Party), Nigel Hess (English composer), Victor F. Hess (physicist discoverer of cosmic rays) and Leon Hess (founder of Hess Corp.).